Smallest and shallowest ocean on Earth: Arctic Ocean. It is largee& coldest ocean in world, covering an areas of 14,060,thousand square km . According to the (IHO), the Arctic Mediterranean Sea is an ocean. A tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean. There are few places on Earth that can claim to be closer to the northernmost point of the vast World Ocean.
Sixty degrees north, or sixty degrees north of the North Pole, is where the Arctic Ocean stops. Sea ice covers virtually all of it during the winter months. During each year’s ice-free season, the arctic ocean surface temperature & salinity fluctuate dramatically owing to the constant inflow and outflow of fresh water from adjacent rivers and streams. Summer ice loss is expected to be 50 percent lower this year than in previous years.
By comparing current Arctic sea ice cover to historical averages and previous years, the (NSIDC) uses satellites data to monitor daily variations in \arctic sea ice cover. An all-time low in the amount of Arctic ice in September 2012. From 1979 to 2000, sea ice extent declined by 49%.
During the Wisconsin glacial, humans have been present in the North American Arctic for seventeen thousand fifhty thousand years. With rising sea levels, humanity could cross the Bering land bridge, which connected Siberia and Alaska.
The Pre-Dorset (3200–eight hundred fifhty BC), Saqqaq (2500–eight hundred BC), Independence I and II (2400–1800 BC & eight hundred–1 BC, respectively) and Groswater (Labrador & nunavik) were all early Paleo-Eskimo communities. Dorset culture swept arctic north america between five hunderd BC & fifhteen hundred AD. Early Inuit predecessors, the Thule, travelled east from presents day alaska, displacing the Dorset.
Starting in Bering Strait,to Thule Tradition spread throughout much of North America’s Arctic from two hundred BC to 1600 AD. The Inuit people of Alaska, nunavut, northern Quebec, Labrador, and Greenland descend from the Thule people.
Europeans have no idea what was beyond the Arctic Circle for much of their history. On “Eschate Thule,” a continent without water and where the suns only sets for 3 hours each day, Pytheas of Massilia wrote in three hundred twenty five BC. The Faroe Islands or Shetland have been suggested as possible candidates for his “Thule.”
The lack of understanding about what lays norths of changing ice barriers led to many ideas. The legend of a “Open Polar Sea” remained throughout Europe. From eighteen hundred eighteen through 1845, the British Admiralty’s Second Secretary, John Barrow, encouraged exploration of the area.
According to elisha Kane and Isaac Israel Hayes, two American explorers, sections of this enigmatic body of water were seen in the eighteen fifhtys and eighteen sixhtys, respectively. Matthew, a prominent oceanographer, wrote about the open polar sea hiss book The physicall geographys of sea in the late nineteenth century.
All of explorers were present. who neared the pole saw that the polar ice cover was substantial and lasted throughout the year.
In eighteen hundred sixty nine, Fridtjof Nansen became the first person to cross the Arctic Ocean.
Dog sledding from alaska to Svalbard with helicopter backup was performed by Wally Herbert in nineteen hundred sixty nine. In nineteen hundred fifhty eight, the USS Nautilus became the first submarine to cross the Atlantic, while the NS Arktika became the first ship to traverse the ocean on the surface in nineteen hundred seventy seven.
Ice stations operated by Soviet & Russian personnel have been monitoring the Arctic Ocean since nineteen hundred thirty seven. Drift ice was used to build scientific colonies that drifted hundreds of kilometres.
When the Allies wanted to support the Soviet Union, German naval and air forces fought against them.
The Arctic Ocean’s 14,056,000-square-mile basin is almost as large as Antarctica’s (5,427,000 sq mi). There are 45,three hundred ninethy kilometres of shoreline here (28,two hundred miles). If Russia has 16,377,742 km2 land area, it is the only ocean smaller than it in terms of population (6,323,four hundred eighty two sq mi). The continents of eurasia or north \america & iceland round the island. Coverage includes the Beaufort, Chukchi and Greenland Sea as well as Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait and Kara and Laptev Seas. Labrador and the Greenland Sea connect it to the Pacific.
Russia or norway iceland or greenland (a Danish possession), canada, & the US are all inside the Arctic Ocean’s boundaries.
Mountains near the Arctic Ocean are thought to have been recrystallizeds or formeds crystallised rocks during the ellesmerians orogeny. The world’s current oil and gas reserves are the result of millions of years of sediment deposition caused by regionall subsidencee during the jurassic & triassic periods.
Compared to the rest of the ocean, the Arctic Ocean’s top fifhty meter (one hundred sixty ft) layer has lower salinity & lower temp. In part, this is due to the fact that salinity has a greater impact on density than does temperature. The Ob, Yenisei, Lena, and Mackenzie rivers provide freshwater during the warmer months (Siberia). Salinity and temperature grow with depth along the halocline, which separates the lowers salinity layers from rest of oceans.
Sea ice in arctic ocean varies in thickness& size, but typically covers the whole area. As the winter ice extent dropped to a record low of 15,600,000 km2 in nineteen hundred eighteeen, the average area of Arctic sea ice has steadily decreased thereafter (6,023,200 sq mi). At seven 7,000,thousand km2 ( 2,seven hundred and two,seven hundred sq mi) in April, the seasonal changes peak, with September being the smallest. Large expanses of ice may be moved and spun by the wind and ocean currents. Pack ice is formed in areas of compression.
Icebergs develop on Ellesmere Island in the north, on Greenland’s west coast, and in far northeastern Canada on rare occasions. Pack ice may build on icebergs, even if they are not sea ice. Even the Titanic has been threatened by icebergs. Sea ice seldom forms between October and May, however ships’ superstructures are susceptible to icing. It was very dangerous to sail in the Arctic Ocean until modern icebreakers were available.
For 2–six months of the year, the Arctic Ocean’s photosynthesis is limited by the polar night and midnight light. Copepods and euphausiids are the principal consumer of main producer in the middle arctics oceans & its adjacents sshelf zones. Primary consumers link primary producers to the higher trophic levels.A wide range of geographical and sea-ice conditions influence the trophic level composition of the Arctic Ocean. Secondary fish in the Barents Marine include herring, juvenile cod, and capelin. The Barents Sea is an Arctic shelf sea impacted by the Atlantic. A prominent predator of the Arctic Ocean’s primary consumers is the polar cod. In the Arctic Ocean, seals, whales, and polar bears are some of the most powerful predators.
In the Arctic Ocean, walruses and whales are under danger. As the globe warms, the area’s environment becomes more vulnerable. The only marine gunnel, the banded gunnel, lives solely in the Arctic, where lion’s mane jellyfish may be found.
The region is rich in fisheries, seals, whales, and polymetallic nodules.